We cautiously prepared not to expect any vaccines for at least a year, and that getting them would take even longer.
We now have at least 3 seemingly viable vaccines, with jaw droppping efficacy rates of up to 90%.
One type is based on introducing mRNA into the host, inside a lipid container, where it gets taken up by cells and they then begin to manufacture the spike proteins found on the Covid-19 virus. This stimulates antibody production and Helper T-Cell which attack the virus if it’s present.
The other uses an attenuated form of the virus, and stimulates an immune response.
Having studied Immunology I think this is hugely exciting (I tried something vaguely similar for my thesis at University). As an operational achievement it is also amazing. Probably the biggest public health pandemic initiative since things like Polio.